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By way of example, coils 45, 46, 47 and 48 may be wound with 40 wire so that each wire coil samples the same part of the magnetic field. Coil 45 may have 50 turns of 40 wire, while coil 46 may have turns; coil 47, turns; and coil 48, 2. Each of the coils 49,. Thus, the induced electromotive force for coils of varying diameter can be easily compared. A coil shown in dotted lines at -5 is properly positioned on guide tube 24 by removing the guide tube from its upper clip 20, passing the particular coil being tested over the top 26, and moving the coil to the lower end.

A large rubber grommet 72 which fits snugly over the outer surface of the tube is located adjacent the lower end. This grommet may be manually urged along the tube to a position whereat it is desired to test a particular coil. The test coil is vertically supported on the grommet while a magnet 75 is released from the level of reference point Binding posts 84 and 86 are permanently secured along one side of the front face of main column support Electrical conductors 85 and '87 are fastened to these binding hosts and to binding posts 68 and 69 of the coil being tested.

As will be described below, additional conductors connect binding posts 84 and 86 to an oscilloscope 78 for indicating the alectromotive force. Magnet 75 is a permanent magnet haying a circular cross-section and a diameter sufliciently small so that it may pass readily through the interior 26 of the guide tube in a free-fall manner. The apparatus includes a second permanent magnet 76, each of the magnets halving identical shapes but differing flux densities thereby allowing investigation of the relationship between varying flux densities and a single test coil.

Turning now to FIG. The apparatus includes a continuous copper pipe 90 having an inner diameter greater than the outer diameter of the guide tube. The pipe may be placed on the glass tube directly above a test coil, also being supported by the grommet. Two additional members for. The free ends of the solenoid wire are shorted together. Oscilloscope 78 FIG.

The oscilloscope is semipermanently connected to binding posts 84 and 86 by electrical conductors 79'and As the magnet is dropped through the guide tube from the reference point, an electromotive force will be induced in the coil as the magnetic field passes through. The value of the electromotive force is indicated on the screen of the oscilloscope and may be noted for plotting a curve or graph as will be described below. The preferred embodiment'of the experimental apparatus has been described in detail, now a brief description of the more important experiments capable of being performed with the apparatus, and the method of performance, will be provided.

The first experiment involving Faradays laws is to determine the mathematical relationship between the electromotive force induced in a coil of wire and the number of wire turns on the coil. The strength of the magnetic field, and the velocity of the magnet through the coil must be held constant.

Thus, the same permanent magnet 75 is used for each step, and it is always dropped from a given reference point 80 adjacent the top of the tube Each of the coils being tested are placed, one at a time, on the rubber grommet 72, always at the same location so that the free-fall distance of the magnet is constant. The magnet, falling through a constant free-fall distance from the time it is released until it passes through the coil, attains a gravity induced constant velocity. Coils 45, 46, 47 and 48, each having a differing number of wire turns, are tested one at a time.

Each coil is placed on the test apparatus and is coupled to the oscilloscope by wires 85, 87, binding posts 84, 86, and wires 79, The magnet is dropped from reference point '80 through the tube 24 and is successively retrieved through window The oscilloscope is preferably set at a sweep rate of 10 c. A typical trace produced by one coil may be seen in FIG. A plotted graph of the electromotive force as a function of the number of coil turns, FIG.

Another experiment involving Faradays laws which may be performed with the apparatus is to determine the mathematical relationship between the electromotive force induced in a coil and the velocity of a magnetic field passing therethrough. For this test, the strength of the magnet and the parameters of the coil remain constant. The velocity of the magnetasit passes through the coil is varied by altering the vertical location of the coil on I guide tube 24 by moving grommet 72 up or down, and. The relative positions are pinpointed by serially connecting two identical coils and varying the distance of separation between them over the range of.

SL to 1. Properly connected, a magnet passing through the coils will induce an electromotive force displaying a trace on the oscilloscope similar to that shown in FIG. This trace is the resultant of the superposition of the electromotive force induced in each coil. The separation between the coils is varied until a maximum trough deflection is obtained. In this position, the falling magnet is inducing a maximum electromotive force in each coil at the same time.

By noting the corresponding distance between the coils and the length of the magnet, the relative position of the magnet and coil when a maximum electromotive force is being induced, can be determined. The location on the magnet when the maximum electromotive force is induced should be marked, and the magnet always dropped with this mark aligned with reference point It should be noted that the electromotive forces induced by the same end of the falling magnet are being compared, consequentially care should be taken to release the magnet each time with the same end pointing downward.

To determine the mathematical relationship between the velocity of a magnet and the electromotive induced in a coil, a single coil is moved to several positions along the tube guide by adjusting the grommet, and the amplitude of the oscilloscopic trace is noted each time the magnet is dropped. From the position of the coil, the freefall distance of the magnet is found using indicia 30, and the velocity is computed by the above formula. Plotting a graph of the electromotive force versus the square root of the free-fall distance, the relationship is found to be linear.

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The electromotive force induced in a coil by a first magnet having a first magnetic field strength, can be compared to the electromotive force induced in the same coil by a second magnet having a second magnetic field strength. The two magnets 75 and 76, are dropped, one at a time, through tube The amplitudes of the traces displayed on the screen, indicating the electromotive forces induced in the coil, are noted.

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It is not a material substance. Whenever energy freely transforms from one form to another, the direction of transformation is toward a state of greater disorder and therefore toward one of greater entropy. For mechanical equilibrium, the state in which no net forces and no net torques act. In liquids, the state in which evaporation equals condensation. More generally, the state in which no net change of energy occurs. On an object or system of objects in mechanical equilibrium, the sum of forces equal zero.

The opposite of condensation. An atom in an excited state will usually decay de-excite rapidly to a lower state by the emission of radiation. The frequency and energy of emitted radiation are related by. Fahrenheit scale Temperature scale in common use in the United States. The number 32 is assigned to the melt-freeze point of water, and the number to the boil-condense point of water at standard pressure one atmosphere, at sea level. In general, an electric field is induced in any region of space in which a magnetic field is changing with time. The magnitude of the induced electric field is proportional to the rate at which the magnetic field changes.

FM Abbreviation for frequency modulation.

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For a converging lens or a concave mirror, any incident parallel rays of light converge to a point somewhere on a focal plane. For a diverging lens or a convex mirror, the rays appear to come from a point on a focal plane. For a diverging lens or a convex mirror, the point from which such rays appear to come. A satellite orbiting the Earth moves in an ellipse that has the Earth at one focus. Force is a vector quantity. Examples of force fields are gravitational fields, electric fields, and magnetic fields.

The sounding board in a musical instrument amplifies the sound through forced vibration. Fourier analysis Mathematical method that disassembles any periodic wave form into a combination of simple sine waves. Fraunhofer lines Dark lines visible in the spectrum of the sun or a star. For a wave, the number of crests that pass a particular point per unit time. Frequency is measured in hertz. In this case, the amplitude of the modulated carrier wave remains constant.

With the proper combination of resistors, it can be converted to an ammeter or a voltmeter. An ammeter is calibrated to measure electric current. A voltmeter is calibrated to measure electric potential. It is one thousandth of a kilogram. See also law of universal gravitation and universal gravitational constant.

Undetected at this writing. This term is also used to describe decay processes in general. Measured in c alories or joules. One hertz is one vibration per second. Where D x is the change in length and k is the spring constant,. Absolute humidity is the mass of water per volume of air.

Relative humidity is absolute humidity at that temperature divided by the maximum possible, usually given as a percent. Hz Abbreviation for hertz. Impulse produces change in momentum. The peak frequency of radiant energy is proportional to the absolute temperature of the heated substance:. See also coherent light and laser. See also electromagnetic induction. Mass is the measure of inertia. Constructive interference results from crest-to-crest reinforcement; destructive interference results from crest-to-trough cancellation.

The interference of selected wavelengths of light produces colors known as interference colors. See also constructive interference, destructive interference, interference pattern, and standing wave.

Section Summary

Michelson and Morley used an interferometer in their famous experiments with light. Changes in internal energy are of principal concern in thermodynamics. Gravity, electric, magnetic, light, sound, and radiation phenomena follow the inverse-square law. A positive ion has a net positive charge. A negative ion has a net negative charge.

The iris regulates the amount of light entering the eye. J Abbreviation for joule. One joule of work is done when a force of one newton is exerted on an object moved one meter in the direction of the force. K a Abbreviation for kelvin.

Stewart–Tolman effect

KE Abbreviation for kinetic energy. A temperature measured in kelvins symbol K indicates the number of units above absolute zero. Divisions on the Kelvin scale and Celsius scale are the same size, so a change in temperature of one kelvin equals a change in temperature of one Celsius degree. Kelvin scale Temperature scale, measured in kelvins K, whose zero called absolute zero is the temperature at which it is impossible to extract any more internal energy from a material.

There are no negative temperatures on the Kelvin scale. Law 1: The path of each planet around the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus. Law 2: The line from the Sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas of space in equal time intervals. Equal to one food Calorie. It is equal to grams. See pascal. L Abbreviation for liter. In some textbooks, lowercase l is used. The word is an acronym for l ight a mplification by s timulated e mission of r adiation. Also known as a principle.

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  6. Hence, the momentum before an event involving only internal forces is equal to the momentum after the event:. This is true for both partially and totally reflected waves. See also angle of incidence and angle of reflection. It includes the electron and its neutrino, the muon and its neutrino, and the tau and its neutrino. When lift equals weight, horizontal flight is possible. Each element has a unique pattern of lines. Also called momentum. This definition applies at speeds much less than the speed of light.

    Also called simply speed.

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    A liter is equal to cm 3. Lorentz contraction See length contraction. Relative loudness, or sound level, is mea-sured in decibels. Mach number Ratio of the speed of an object to the speed of sound. For example, an aircraft traveling at the speed of sound is rated Mach 1. See also electromagnetism and magnetic force.

    A compass placed on such a line will turn so that the needle is aligned with it. This force is greatest when the charged particle moves perpendicular to the field lines and is smallest zero when it moves parallel to the field lines. The word is an acronym for m icrowave a mplification by s timulated e mission of r adiation.

    The magnitude of the induced magnetic field is proportional to the rate at which the electric field changes.


    The direction of the induced magnetic field is at right angles to the changing electric field. Melting is a different process from dissolving, in which an added solid mixes with a liquid and the solid dissociates. MeV Abbreviation for million electron volts, a unit of energy, or equivalently a unit of mass.